Americans aren’t enthusiastic about liberal democracy
Democracy. The theory underpinning our Republic; the heart of the American experiment; the principle for which millions dedicate their lives. It’s the pillar of our country’s identity and a principle we have long sought to export. Yet despite democracy’s centrality in our political life, do the American people actually believe it?
Our Political System
America is a liberal democracy. That means our Constitution enshrines rights unalterable by an elected majority to preserve the liberty of all inhabitants, regardless of the likes of race, gender, creed, religion, and so on. Elections are fair and free with suffrage near universal for those of age. Scholars such as Francis Fukuyama have heralded such a governing system as the “end of history” (that is, the final point towards which all governing systems evolve).
A liberal democracy protects citizens against tyranny of the majority or the minority. In so avoiding authoritarianism, other minor inconveniences of a diverse state arise: Viewpoints differ among the population, meaning arguments – vicious at times – will be had; government will often be gridlocked as members of different political parties butt heads on how to best achieve common goals; policies will not be perfect as only through compromise will necessary steps ever be taken.
Americans Dislike the Perceived Costs
Americans dislike those messy drawbacks to liberal democracy, a phenomenon that leaves many susceptible or even willing to accept arguments proffered by demagogues with a decided authoritarian or otherwise illiberal bent.
In “Stealth Democracy,” John Hibbing and Elizabeth Theiss-Morse examined how Americans feel about the political system. The results, a bit dated and likely worse now, should scare those who believe in liberal democracy.
A whopping 86 percent of the American people believed that “elected officials would help the country more if they would stop talking and just take action.” In other words, elected officials – namely, the president – should act unilaterally and without concern to those who disagree with them to advance ideological aims. That, of course, is invited (democratic) authoritarianism: Americans elect someone and then encourage that person to act as (s)he sees fit.
60 percent think “compromise is really just selling out on one’s principles.” Governing is impossible without compromise because never at any point in time will a polity experience 100 percent agreement on any given subject, no matter how trivial. For non-trivial matters, majority support for any given policy will never overwhelming, especially in a legislative chamber. To pass legislation – to do anything – compromise is needed.
60 percent also believe “government would work best if it were run like a business.” Governments must care for the people (“common welfare”). Businesses care only for profit (as, arguably, they should). These diametric purposes almost certainly cannot be meshed and, when tried, results are disastrous.
31 percent would forego the democratic part of liberal democracy and simply hand the government over to “nonelected, independent experts rather than politicians or the people” and simply hope that these individuals somehow decide to protect liberty and act for benevolent purposes.
Liberal Democracy and Donald Trump
Last year, the study’s authors repeated the surveys and found very similar results while also noting that those least inclined to support liberal democratic values favored and felt positively towards then-candidate Donald Trump. In other words, illiberal, anti-democratic Americans found their favored candidate. And that should come as no surprise for Donald Trump broke numerous democratic norms throughout his campaign and has continued to do so while in office.
It should frighten us all that a large minority of Americans have only marginal affection for liberal democracy and that they have found an illiberal politician who now extolls those beliefs from the Oval Office.
A thriving liberal democracy depends on citizens believing in its values and passing those beliefs onto children. These democratic mores protect democracy from the flaws that befall it – especially its susceptibility to demagogues. As those beliefs crumble and are made further mainstream by a candidate who earned 62 million votes, the continued vibrancy of our liberal Republic may be threatened.